There are several types of panels are available in the market. Different installer uses different types of the panel in a different kind of installation.
first of all, we will let you know about how a solar panel works.
The process of converting light to electricity is called the solar photovoltaic (PV) effect. Photovoltaic solar cells convert sunlight directly into solar power (electricity). They use thin layers of semi-conducting material that is charged differently between the top and bottom layers. The semi-conducting material can be encased between a sheet of glass and or a polymer resin.
When exposed to daylight, electrons in the semi-conducting material absorb the photons, causing them to become highly energised. These move between the top and bottom surfaces of the semi-conducting material. This movement of electrons generates a current known as a direct current (DC).
There are three main types of solar panel currently in commercial production, all of which are based on silicon semiconductors.
Monocrystalline solar cells
Solar cells made of monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si), also called single-crystalline silicon (single-crystal-Si), are quite easily recognizable by an external even coloring and uniform look, indicating high-purity silicon,Monocrystalline solar cells are made out of silicon ingots, which are cylindrical in shape. To optimize performance and lower costs of a single monocrystalline solar cell, four sides are cut out of the cylindrical ingots to make silicon wafers, which is what gives monocrystalline solar panels their characteristic look.
A good way to separate mono- and polycrystalline solar panels is that polycrystalline solar cells look perfectly rectangular with no rounded edges.
Polycrystalline solar cells
This type of solar cell is also made from thin wafers of silicon cut from artificially grown crystals, but instead of single crystals, these cells are made from multiple interlocking silicon crystals grown together, hence they are cheaper to produce, but their efficiency is lower than the monocrystalline solar cells, currently at 13-18%
Amorphous solar cells
These are the cheapest type of solar cell to produce, are relatively new to the market and are produced very differently to the two other types. Instead of using crystals, silicon is deposited very thinly on a backing substrate.
There are two real benefits of the amorphous solar cell; firstly the layer of silicon is so thin it allows the solar cells to be flexible and secondly they are more efficient in low light levels (like during winter).
This however comes at a price; they have the lowest efficiency rating of all three types – approximately 7% – 9%, requiring approximately double the panel area to produce the same output. In addition, as this is a relatively new science, there is no agreed industry wide production technique, so they are not as robust as the other two types.
Hybrid solar Cells
The hybrid panel combines the abilities of a solar panel and an airheater. This means that it can heat water for the household, and produce electrical power at the same time. This combination gives a higher total effect of output per panel. This combination also provides upwards of 20% more produced power.