We all Know how solar energy change the entire era of the renewables sector.It is cheap and most compatible and affordable to everyone solution and more efficient than other renewable sources. We all know about solar panel and how it works. Solar with more efficiency will give you higher units in a day and have a long life period.
Today we are going to tell you bit more about the solar panels manufacturing process.
What is Solar cell
Photovoltaic solar cells are thin silicon disks that convert sunlight into electricity. These disks act as energy sources for a wide variety of uses, including calculators and other small devices; telecommunications; rooftop panels on individual houses; and for lighting, pumping, and medical refrigeration for villages in developing countries. Solar cells in the form of large arrays are used to power satellites and, in rare cases, to provide electricity for power plants.
A solar cell made of following layers:-
- Cell ribbon
- junction Box
1) Purifying the silicon : – The silicon dioxide of either quartzite gravel or crushed quartz is placed into an electric arc furnace. A carbon arc is then applied to release the oxygen. The products are carbon dioxide and molten silicon. This simple process yields silicon with one percent impurity, useful in many industries but not the solar cell industry.The 99 percent pure silicon is purified even further using the floating zone technique. A rod of impure silicon is passed through a heated zone several times in the same direction. This procedure “drags” the impurities toward one end with each pass. At a specific point, the silicon is deemed pure, and the impure end is removed.3 Solar cells are made from silicon boules, polycrystalline structures that have the atomic structure of a single crystal. The most commonly used process for creating the boule is called the Czochralski method. In this process, a seed crystal of silicon is dipped into melted polycrystalline silicon. As the seed crystal is withdrawn and rotated, a cylindrical ingot or “boule” of silicon is formed. The ingot withdrawn is unusually pure, because impurities tend to remain in the liquid.
2) Making silicon wafers :- A silicon crystal must change shape several times before it winds up as the precisely calibrated wafers that form the foundations of photovoltaic cells.First, a saw cuts off the crystal’s so-called top and tail, so that a crystal of uniform width remains. Typically, wafering saws draw thin wire bearing a liquid abrasive across the crystal’s surface. (Below, a machine mounted with a giant donutlike steel blade does the cutting.) Wire saws also cut the crystal into ingots measuring 2 feet or less. Steel holders are mounted on the ends of these ingots for the next step.
3) Etching: – To form a texture
4) Phosphorus diffusion: – To foP-N junctions